Lighting the Way: Toward a Sustainable Energy Future

  • AuthorInterAcademies Council
  • Release Date1 October 2007
  • Copyright2007
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Annex D: List of boxes, figures, and tables
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Boxes

Box 1.1             Energy and the Millennium Development Goals 4
Box 1.2             A focus on cooking in the developing world 13
Box 2.1             Japan’s Top Runner Program 37
Box 3.1             Four generations of nuclear reactors 83
Box 3.2             Frontiers in biofuels production 114
Box 4.1             Reducing emissions: Taxes vs. cap-and-trade programs 132
Box 4.2             Energy subsidies 141
Box 4.3             The Grameen experience with photovoltaics 142

Figures

Figure 1.1         Energy Intensity versus time, 1985-2005 6
Figure 1.2         Regional shares in world primary energy demand, including business-as-usual
                          projections 8
Figure 1.3         World primary energy consumption by fuel, 2004 9
Figure 1.4         World electricity production by energy source, 2004 9
Figure 1.5         The energy ladder: Relative pollutant emissions per meal 13
Figure 1.6         Relationship between human development index (HDI) and per capita
                          electricity consumption, 2003 – 2004 14x
Figure 2.1         The energy chain 24
Figure 2.2         Technology innovation and the production function 26
Figure 2.3         United States over time 33
Figure 2.4         Shares of primary energy use in U.S. commercial buildings 35
Figure 2.5         U.S. transportation energy consumption by mode, 2005 (trillion Btu) 44
Figure 2.6         Comparison of auto fuel efficiency by auto fuel economy standards among 
                           countries, normalized to U.S. test procedure 49
Figure 3.1         Efficiency of coal-fired power production 63
Figure 3.2         From coal to electricity and usable products 64
Figure 3.3         Schematic illustration of a sedimentary basin with a number of geological
                          sequestration options 71
Figure 3.4         Existing and planned/proposed nuclear reactors in the world   78
Figure 3.5         World incremental electricity generation by fuel type   79
Figure 3.6         Regional distribution of global nuclear capacity in the IAEA’s high
                           projection   81
Figure 3.7         Modern renewables projections for 2010 and 2020   95
Figure 3.8         Potential Pathways for Biofuels Production   111
Figure 4.1         The development of crude oil prices over the last three decades   128
Figure 4.2         Public energy R&D expenditures in IEA countries and real oil price
                          1974–2004  137

Tables
Table 1.1           World primary energy demand by fuel   10
Table 3.1           Consumption, reserves and resources of fossil fuels   59
Table 3.2           World-wide CO2 geological sequestration capacity estimates   72
Table 3.3           Comparative power costs   85
Table 3.4           Modern renewable energy: production and growth   94
Table 3.5           Renewable energy promotion policies and targets in selected countries   96
Table 3.6           Research pathways to improved cellulosic biofuels production   115
Table 4.1           Policy options for promoting a transition to a sustainable energy future   126
Table 4.2           Energy R&D opportunities   135
Table 4.3           Cost of energy subsidies by source, 1995-1998 (US$ billion/year)   141

 

Document Date: October 1, 2007
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